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The History of the merchant society

The trade was born
with a human being.
People, making business,
were called merchants and tradespeople.
/ Encyclopaedia. /
    The history of the organization an independent Merchant Society is going to the ancient past. Moscow residents were united in the independent Tayaglovoi Souz1, including Gostinaya, Sukonaya and Chernaya sotnaya2 and sloboda3 by the XVI century. In their turn they were brought together in Societies to solve problems of the Moscow tradespeople. Sotskie4 and the headmen of all sotnaya and sloboda gathered together. They wrote petition about their needs to the Prikaz5 or straight to the Czar.
    Merchants and craftmen were combined into Guilds and classes6 during the resign of Peter I by his edicts dated of 16th and 30th of December in 1721. Moreover a new organization called "The Moscow Merchant Guild" combined the merchants of the three guilds was established in Moscow. They realized interests of Moscow tradespeople. According to the City Petition of April 1851 they were rewarded with new rights and privileges by Ekaterina I. Now they could group in Classes and Societies, hand down their positions.
    For their reasonable contribution they were free from taxes except customs and boundary duties.
    In the Guild "The Civil Merchant Society" was in charge among with the headmen who performed the execution part. That were causing a lot of chaos untill "The Moscow Merchant Society" was reorganized into "The Merchant Department of the House of the City Society" in 1805. As a rule the City Head, a distinguished merchant, was in charged of the Head of the Merchant Society. Members became electing to the Society from all merchants (2 - from distinguished citizenes, 20 from the merchant 1st guild, 40 - merchants 2nd guild, 60 - merchants 3d and 80 from bourgeois).
    By 1863 the MMS was authorized to run all merchants business. Furthermore they took place in the City Duma7. They became independent in 1863. Elective merchants Uprava8 ( starshina9, tovarish starshini10, two members and two assessors) and the Assembly of the authoritive elected citizenes and merchants (100 people) were proposed to be in charge of the Head of the self-government. In 1913 the MMS celebrated the 50th anniversary of their independence and 128 years of their establishment. They stopped their work in 1918 and were promoted on acting again only in 1995.
    Since of their establishment the Moscow Merchant Society has been taking a big part in developming of Rusian trade and industry, they have been making a great conribution in charity, education and Russian culture. Moreover they systematized and made accurate descriptions of the most important merchant archives. By Naidernov initiative and his edited there was picked up "The Materials of the History of Moscow Merchant" included two volumes and "The History of the Moscow Merchant Society" contaned 5 volumes by Storozev.
    Vladimir Nikolaevich Kokovzev, the Financial Minister from 1906 to 1914 wrote " The interests of tradespeople are always agreed towards the tendency that provides the State with healthy and wealthy life".
  1. Tayaglovoi Souz - the united of tradespeople and peasants in Russia who were taxed.
  2. Gostinaya, Sukonaya and Chernaya sotnaya - The united of merchants with privileges in Russia; didn't have to pay certain taxes.
  3. Sloboda - settlements in Russia during XI - XVII centures
  4. Sotskie - there were official people elected by tadespeople.
  5. Prikaz - government organ in Russia
  6. Guilds and classes - united of merchants with certain privileges in Russia in XII - XV centures
  7. City Duma - government organ in Russia where authoritive boyares were allowed to be.
  8. Uprava - independent and self-government merchant organ in Russia
  9. Starshina - the leader of the Uprava
  10. Tovarish starshini - the vice-leader of the Uprava